ascribed by others. Vedantam, S., “Most Diversity Training Ineffective, Study Finds,” The Washington Post, January 20, 2008, accessed October 5, 2011, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/01/19/AR2008011901899_pf.html. Although they may be aware of differences—for example, between races and genders—they either don’t realize there is a hierarchy that treats some people differently than others or they don’t think the hierarchy applies to them. For example, I have had students who struggle to see that they are in this stage say things like “I know that racism exists, but my parents taught me to be a good person and see everyone as equal.” While this is admirable, seeing everyone as equal doesn’t make it so. If so, what did you learn or take away from the training? The main nondominant groups must face various forms of institutionalized discrimination, including racism, sexism, heterosexism, and ableism. For example, a young woman who will later identify as a lesbian may not yet realize that a nondominant sexual orientation is part of her identity. As an example, some heterosexual people who find out a friend or family member is gay or lesbian may have to confront their dominant heterosexual identity for the first time, which may lead them through these various stages. It is a position that is neither earned nor chosen but assigned. The first ascribed identity I would like to address is smart, I think that the groups that are responsible for giving me this identity would be my teachers, parents, and fellow students. There are multiple models for examining identity development. Shipman, T., “Nerds Get Their Revenge as at Last It’s Hip to Be Square,” The Sunday Telegraph, July 22, 2007, 35. (Textbook, page 376) 9. Were there any stereotypes involved? Although there may still be residual anger from the discrimination and prejudice they have faced, they may direct this energy into positive outlets such as working to end discrimination for their own or other groups. One intercultural communication scholar writes of his experiences as an “Asianlatinoamerican” (Yep, 2002). Experts recommend that a company put a staff person in charge of diversity efforts, and some businesses have gone as far as appointing a “chief diversity officer” (Cullen, 2007). Individuals with dominant identities may not validate the experiences of those in nondominant groups because they do not experience the oppression directed at those with nondominant identities. There are four stages of nondominant identity development (Martin & Nakayama, 2010). Although some identities are essentially permanent, the degree to which we are aware of them, also known as salience, changes. It’s important to remember that these distinctions are being made at the societal level, not the individual level. This position, also called a ‘social status’, often decides how a person is to be treated by the rest of the world. For example, think of how ways of being and acting have changed for African Americans since the civil rights movement. In this section, we’ll explore how the cultural identities of race, gender, sexual orientation, and ability have been constructed in the United States and how communication relates to those identities. Avowed identities. However, as we will learn later, developing intercultural communication competence can help us gain new perspectives, become more mindful of our communication, and intervene in some of these negative cycles. The workplace is one context where changing demographics has become increasingly important. Moises, a Chicano man interviewed in a research project about identities, narrated how he changed his “Mexican sounding” name to Moses, which was easier for his middle-school classmates and teachers to say (Jones Jr., 2009). When we study interpersonal communication, we often focus on external things like the audience or environment. For example, an African American may not have difficulty deciding which box to check on the demographic section of a survey. Any of these identity types can be ascribed or avowed. Culture and identity are complex. As the adage goes: We are not who we think we are. & Kotthoff, H., 2009). That is, we find ourselves in the reflections of the context that we are in, rather than simply in the privacy of our own internal, introspective thoughts. We categorize objects in order to understand them and identify them. I think that there is not to much we can do to overcome our ascribed identities. Individuals may attempt to assimilate into the dominant culture by changing their appearance, their mannerisms, the way they talk, or even their name. He notes repressing his Chinese identity as an adolescent living in Peru and then later embracing his Chinese identity and learning about his family history while in college in the United States. A current interest in online video games may give way to an interest in graphic design. Dominant identity development consists of five stages (Martin & Nakayama, 2010). However, he or she may not see the underlying reason that it is noticeable—namely, that the overwhelming majority of our country’s leaders are white. For example, racial groupings often are ascribed as well as self-claimed. What would a person who looked at this list be able to tell about you? This is because you may think that you should be a person who is thought by others, or you may tell others who you are through your attitude, and people would agree with that image. We all have many aspects to our identities that even *we* don’t even realize we have. Have you ever participated in any diversity training? An ascribed identity is one that we give to someone else. Social identities are components of self that are derived from our involvement in social groups to which we are interpersonally invested. In the conformity stage, an individual internalizes or adopts the values and norms of the dominant group, often in an effort not to be perceived as different. Personal identities may change often as people have new experiences and develop new interests and hobbies. Personal identities are components of self that are primarily intrapersonal and connect to our individual interests and life experiences. Other social identities are personally claimed but Worthless old retired guy all rest easier at night and they are important, it is a that... 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