However, these attempts do not substantially improve the efficiency of the helicopter by reducing fuel consumption. The civilian tiltrotor project now known as the AW609 has been through a long development and testing period, and the aircraft is progressing toward certification in the second half of this year, with deliveries planned for next year. While very large, heavy-lifting helicopters such as the CH-47 can carry on the order of 26,000 pounds, most rotary-wing machines are limited to speeds of approximately150 knots at the top end and a range of around 350 nm. Secured patent protection in the U.S. and abroad for Optimum Speed Rotor and Optimum Speed Tilt Rotor technologies for Frontier Systems, Inc. Certification was planned for 2016. Boeing acquired the rights to Karem's optimum-speed rotor technology used for unmanned aircraft, such as the A-160 Hummingbird. Consequently, the asymmetry in speeds between the advancing and retreating blades has to be limited thereby limiting the forward speed of the helicopter. Speed, range and agility – we don’t make you choose." that of a 180 to 200-knot helicopter. The two-crew aircraft was designed to carry nine passengers and have a maximum speed of 275 knots over a range of 750 nm with a maximum takeoff weight of 16,000 pounds. With fixed-wing aircraft making giant advances, the concept of merging the attributes of a helicopter with a fixed-wing aircraft to solve this problem might appear relatively obvious. The XV-3 convertiplane for the U.S. military was designed in 1951 as the Bell Model 200. The tilt-rotor aircraft has the following characteristics: Hover efficiency better than a helicopter (because the rotor blade twist is not compromised by edge-on flight blade loads). Frontier was purchased by Boeing in May 2004. The tilt rotor, with hover power comparable to that required by a helicopter, offers speeds of 300 to 350 knots. ... and its top speed can be in … Karem Optimum Speed Tilt Rotor Technology OSTR Performance. A tilt-rotor aircraft ( 1 ) comprising a pair of contra-rotating co-axial tiltable rotors ( 11 ) on the longitudinal center line of the aircraft. In the hover, the pilot was provided with a collective control and twist grip throttle to adjust the power and pitch of the prop rotors. Transition to airplane flight was manually controlled by a “beep” switch located on the collective control. Various attempts to expand the flight envelope of the basic helicopter have been made, such as the British Experimental Rotor Programme (BERP), which modified the blade tip to push the world speed record for helicopters to just shy of 250 mph. The company made a number of modifications to the XV-3 that enabled test pilot Bill Quinlan to complete the first full transition from helicopter to airplane mode in December 1958. The Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey tiltrotor, for example, reduces its rotor speed in airplane mode to 84% of vertical flight RPM.The rotor his company has designed for the JMR-TD, Abe Karem said, is lighter and more rigid than those used on the V-22 or any other prior tiltrotor and will be able to reduce its RPM for horizontal flight to less than one-half that required for vertical flight. Abe Karem-owned Frontier Aircraft was awarded a contract for the Optimum Speed Tilt Rotor [OSTR], with a maximum speed of 310 knots. Only tandems will be able to approach their specs. However, the flame for the tiltrotor concept had been lit, and created many devotees created, both within Bell the wider industry—and potentially most importantly, within the American military. The AW609 Tiltrotor helicopter can fly with a maximum cruise speed of 510 km / h and has a maximum range of 1,389 km. The rotor is set to rotate at a lower RPM when at high forward speed so as to reduce the rotor tip speed. In 1998, however, Boeing withdrew from the program citing an intention to concentrate only on military helicopters, and Agusta, a participant in the European Future Advance Rotorcraft project (EUROFAR), formed a joint venture with Bell to develop what was now renamed the BA609 (Bell-Agusta). script.setAttribute("onerror", "setNptTechAdblockerCookie(true);"); var setNptTechAdblockerCookie = function(adblocker) { These gearboxes allow the rotor to rotate at two RPM values while maintaining a constant engine RPM. The XV-15 was initially run with a ground fuel supply and protective shields surrounding the cockpit to reduce the risk to the pilots should there be an uncontained failure of a prop-rotor at high rpm. After extensive and rigorous flight testing, Bell’s military tilt-rotor aircraft is still surpassing performance targets. The centrally mounted Lycoming O-290 piston-powered 1-G crashed as a result of pilot error in 1955, but not before flights had taken place where the prop-rotor drive shafts had been tilted to within 10 degrees of the horizontal airplane mode. The technology allows helicopters with fixed and tilt rotors to operate at fuel efficient power settings. document.cookie = "__adblocker=" + (adblocker ? Obtained patent portfolios directed bits and materials used in the oil drilling industry. I think if whatever follows the V-280 ends up getting adopted by the military, then given another 10 years Bell will be working on stop-fold tilt rotor, which is really the final step of the technological progression. The efficiency of an aircraft, whether fixed wing or rotorcraft, as expressed by the fuel consumption required to achieve a specific performance as for example, cruise, climb, or maximum speed, is directly proportional to the power required to achieve such performance. The experimental predecessor to the V-22, the XV-15, attempted the same type of 2-speed rotor but was not successful in achieving such 2-speed because of rotor dynamics, which caused high vibration and loads at RPM other than 100%. d.setTime(d.getTime() + 60 * 60 * 24 * 2 * 1000); "true" : "false") + "; expires=" + d.toUTCString() + "; path=/"; In 1493, Leonardo da Vinci sketched his idea for an aerial screw that he envisioned climbing vertically into the sky, powered by four men, rotating a canvas helix sail around a vertical shaft. The accident was attributed to a dutch roll condition that was not foreseen by concurrent simulator tests and led to the prop-rotors striking the leading edge of the wing, causing a hydraulic failure, flight control damage and in-flight break up. Most promising among the tilt-wings was the four-engine LTV XC-142A, but this did not progress to production despite relatively favorable test-flying-program results, probably due to the high complexity of tilting not just the rotors, but the entire wing, engines, and all the systems and structures attached or built into the wing. Eight specific excursions to these conditions will also be investigated that include lighter and heavier cargo (16 - 26 tons), shorter and longer mission radii (210 - 500 nm), more extreme environmental conditions (6k95), and full compatibility with a future ship. | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | Content Policy. Experiments using high disc loading, ie small prop-rotors or propellers and large maximum takeoff weights, were being carried out using a tilting wing concept. The engineering and aerodynamic factors limiting the capabilities of helicopters are complex and numerous, and thus the design approaches over the years have been varied and innovative. This time, the vehicle reached 280 knots true airspeed. The rotors (usually 2 or 4) are "tilted" from a first position where their axis of rotation is vertical and where the rotors act as a regular helicopter rotors to a second position where their axis of the rotation is relatively horizontal and the rotors act as propellers producing forward thrust. Tilt-rotors that followed the XV-3 broadly copied its flight control systems, albeit with more and more levels of sophisticated automation. The best-known tilt rotor rotorcraft is the V-22 Osprey. Increasing the RPM of the rotor reduces the relative asymmetry of the airspeed distribution, thus reducing the effects of forward speed on roll control limits. The prop rotors were mounted at the end of long drive shafts, a placement that, coupled with fully articulated rotors and an unbraced wing structure, led to rotor instability and very heavy airframe vibration. Hover 1 Quadcopter.  Vertical Aerospace claims a cruise speed up to 150 mph (241 km/h) for the VA-1X, and its lithium-ion battery pack will enable a range up to 100 miles (161 km) between charges. A variable speed helicopter tilt rotor system and method for operating such a system would allow the helicopter rotor to be operated at an optimal angular velocity in revolutions per minute (RPM) minimizing the power required to turn the rotor thereby resulting in helicopter performance efficiency improvements, reduction in noise, and improvements in rotor, helicopter transmission and engine life. The best-known tilt rotor rotorcraft is the V-22 Osprey. But in the end, if the designer is relying on a rotating blade to provide the majority of lift for the vehicle, retreating blade stall will produce a barrier to top speed, efficiency, and range. In July 1979, the XV-15 became the first aircraft to tilt from helicopter to airplane and back. GAIA 160S Hexacopter. Bell, having concentrated on its military programs, has now successfully flown its V-280 Valor Joint Multi Role technology demonstrator in collaboration with Lockheed Martin. } And this technology, envisioned decades ago, is embracing newer technology, as around the world there exist many unmanned tiltrotor programs, such as the Bell Eagle Eye, that are furthering the technology required for the next generation of tiltrotors. In 2020 it will enter service with the U.S. Navy. In the XV-3, the yaw pedals controlled the pitch of the prop rotors in a way very similar to how a tandem helicopter such as the CH-46 Sea Knight controlls yaw. Tilt rotors are a dream solution for missions like search and rescue, where every second counts. Such loading would require engines producing in the region of 10,000 hp. In vertical flight, the tiltrotor uses controls very similar to a twin or tandem-rotor helicopter. This combination of size and speed is unprecedented and is necessary for research into 21st-century tiltrotors and other … The system and method also provide a substantial improvement in helicopter performance during take-off, hover and maneuver. This paper explores the need for an aircraft combining the efficient VTOL capability of a helicopter with the efficient high speed characteristics of a fixed wing turboprop. Boeing continued a contract that Frontier had from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency to develop the A160 Hummingbird. Other attempts have been made in improving helicopter maximum forward speeds and/or reducing noise at maximum speed by using 2-speed gearboxes. Eagle Hero VTOL. Testing resumed in April 2016, and the third prototype joined the program in May 2016 to carry out icing trials. document.getElementsByTagName("head")[0].appendChild(script); In a conventional helicopter, the yaw pedals were connected to the tail rotor to adjust its pitch to provide yaw control. In order to increase an aircraft efficiency designers strive to increase the lift to drag ratio by minimizing the aircraft drag at lift levels required to counter the aircraft weight and to allow for aircraft maneuvering. The Tiltrotor Test Rig (TTR) is a NASA project, joint with the Army and Air Force, to develop a new, large-scale proprotor test system for the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC). Almost 450 years later, Igor Sikorsky flew what is widely recognized as the first practical helicopter, the VS-300, at Stratford, Connecticut. The aircraft has since flown more than 400,000 hours in various combat theaters including Iraq and Afghanistan and is in service with the U.S. Marines and U.S. Air Force. One of the most significant factors limiting the maximum forward speed of a helicopter is an aerodynamic phenomenon known as “retreating blade stall.” To balance the lift produced across the disc of a spinning rotor that is moving forward through the air, the advancing blade must reduce its angle of attack to maintain the amount of lift it produces as the helicopter’s forward speed is added to the rotational speed of the blade. Generally, helicopter designers are content if they succeed in the development of a single speed rotor, which can go from zero to design RPM when not loaded on the ground during start and stop without encountering vibration loads which overstress the helicopter and rotor structure. Finding the practical solution to the engineering difficulties faced by making this concept a reality has been one of the greatest tasks facing aeronautical engineers and aerodynamicists in the last 75 years. The V-22 Osprey uses 2-speed rotors, a 412 RPM for helicopter mode and for conversion to airplane mode and 333 RPM when the rotors are locked in propeller mode for forward flight. Since its inception, the tiltrotor was predicted to have civilian as well as military applications, so it was no surprise that in 1996, Bell-Boeing announced its intention to produce a civil tiltrotor design, the Bell Boeing 609 (BB609) based on experience with the XV-15 and the V-22. At Israel Aircraft Industries he oversaw projects such as upgrades to the Super Mystere fighter before immigrating to the United States in 1977. Since that time, thousands upon thousands of man-hours and many billions of dollars have been spent on improving the design. Because, lift is inversely proportional to the velocity (i.e., speed) of the blade squared (V2) a substantial increase in the coefficient of lift (CL) of the retreating blade is required. Data from Jane's all the World's Aircraft 2004-05 The International Directory of Civil Aircraft, 2003–2004, Jane's 2000, the BA609 and AW609 data sheets and others But such RPM increase is constrained by the maximum allowable rotor tip speed. Nimbus VTOL. At the same time, the leading edge of the retreat­ing blade tilts down so that the air hits it at a smaller angle (Figure 2.) Vertical motion is controlled with conventional rotor blade pitch and either a conventional helicopter collective control lever (as in the Bell/Agusta BA609) or a unique control similar to a fixed-wing engine control called a thrust control lever (TCL) (as in the Bell-Bo… The XV-3 was similar in configuration to the 1-G, in that the Pratt & Whitney R-985 piston engine was centrally mounted in the fuselage and used drive shafts originating from a fuselage mounted transmission to turn the three-blade, 25-foot-diameter prop rotors. There were also compound helicopter research projects, including the NASA/Sikorsky Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA), which used stub wings and forward propulsion systems. The constant RPM or the close-ratio (100% and 81%) RPMs of the current tilt rotors result in excessive RPM in forward flight and excessive blade "twist" (variance of blade angle at the tip of the blade vs. the angle at the root of the blade) for hover flight. The aircraft flying controls remained active at all times, but as the prop-rotors are tilted forward during transition, the helicopter controls are mechanically blended out until the collective pitch control is no longer used, and the prop rotors automatically govern speed of rotation against applied power. This vehicle is recognized as the first to explore transition from vertical flight to wing-borne airplane flight. Page last modified: You should start off by reading the QuadPlane documentation before moving onto this tilt-rotor specific documentation.. He also served as an officer in the Israeli Air Force. A tilt rotor type rotorcraft converts from helicopter mode to airplane mode (wing borne with propellers) after vertical take-off and converts back to helicopter mode for hover or vertical landing. But very few have made it to production. Collin Krum. When the blades of a conventional rotor are producing lift, a significant change of the rotor blade RPM from the design RPM may yield catastrophic results. To lift the machine into the hover, the collective was raised and the power increased until the lift generated matched the weight and, exactly like a helicopter, the vehicle lifted into the air. By Clay Lacy – in September 1998 Professional Pilot Magazine’s “Flightcheck” ATP/CFII/Helo/Sea. The V-22 fleet is nearing 500, rapidly driving the tiltrotor to a level of maturity that was a distant dream even when the XV-15 took to the skies. Tilt rotor type rotorcraft incorporate wings which produce lift in forward flight, and, at forward speeds which is adequate to support the weight of the rotorcraft. After 2009, little obvious progress was being made on the program, and with no sign of the third and fourth prototypes, Agusta-Westland formally purchased Bell’s share in the project, now renamed the AW609. 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Some research helicopters such as the Lockheed XH-51A compound helicopter have experimented with rotor RPM reduction at certain flight conditions by incorporating a wing for producing most of the required lift and a jet or a propeller driving engine for producing the required forward thrust. Unlike the tilt-wing or tilt-rotor concepts, no pivot axis, no tilt actuators, no dual position lubrication systems for engines or transmissions are needed. A helicopter in a substantial forward speed (e.g., 100-200 mph) experiences problems of control, vibration and limitations in performance resulting from the asymmetry in the speeds of the advancing and retreating blades. The XV-3 had certainly proved that the concept of the tilt-rotor was achievable, but the XV-3 only ever achieved a level flight cruise speed of 115 knots, which represented little increase over most conventional helicopters of the time. The retreating blade must similarly increase its angle of attack, as the machine’s forward speed is removed from the blade’s rotational speed. 19-01-2017 19:46:40 ZULU, Optimum Speed technology for enhanced performance, More cruise efficient than existing cargo aircraft, Affordable to develop, acquire, and operate, Capable of carrying M2 Bradley [25 tons] and Stryker [19 tons] payloads, High-speed cruise capability - Mach 0.65+ / 330+ knots, 45,000 foot cruise ceiling, pressurized cabin, Flexible high capacity aerial tanker - land or sea based refueling of helicopters, bombers, and loaded fighters, Hover out of ground effect in high/hot landing zones - at mission weights with one engine inoperative, Deploy with troops over global distances in 24 hours, Transport armor over large radii in high/hot conditions. And Optimum speed rotor and Optimum speed rotor and Optimum speed tilt rotor, with power... 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